How Dry Cleaning Is Done & How To Identify Different Kinds Of Cloth
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How Dry Cleaning Is Done & How To Identify Different Kinds Of Cloth

This illustrates the method used in dry cleaning and cloth identification. The advantage of dry cleaning in soapy water is that the garments do not shrink or change their shape, and colors are not affected. This is particularly important with woolen garments.

HOW DRY CLEANING IS DONE

Apparatus and materials:

400 cc beaker stirring rod

coconut oil Carbon tetrachloride

cotton cloth

Experimental Procedure:

Pour in the beaker about half-full of carbon tetrachloride. Make a number of grease spots on the cotton cloth by dropping the coconut oil in it. Place the oily cloth in the beaker with carbon tetrachloride and stir it for a minute or so. Remove the cloth and hang it up to dry. On drying it will be entirely free of the oily spots.

This illustrates the method used in dry cleaning. The advantage of dry cleaning in soapy water is that the garments do not shrink or change their shape, and colors are not affected. This is particularly important with woolen garments. The cleaning solution used by dry cleaning establishments consists largely of naptha, which is an excellent solvent for grease but is not used in this experiment because of its explosive qualities. Dry cleaning with naptha in the home is dangerous.

HOW TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLOTH

Apparatus and materials:

Bunsen burner red and blue litmus paper

test tubes samples of cotton, wool, rayon, silk and linen

Experimental Procedure:

Burn a small piece of each kind of cloth by holding over the Bunsen flame. Notice how each material burns and any odors which arise. The two animal fibers, silk and wool, contain large amounts of protein which decomposes to form ammonia. See if you can detect the odor of ammonia when these two substances burn. Observe also that silk and wool burn slowly. Cotton, linen, and rayon burn quickly and you will notice the sharp odor of burning woody matter.

Now place a sample of one of the five materials in a dry test tube and heat the test tube over the bunsen flame. When fumes begin to come out of the tube, drop a piece of red litmus paper into it and notice if it changes color. If it does not change color, drop in a piece of blue litmus paper. Repeat this test for the other four materials. Silk and wool will change red litmus paper to blue because the ammonia vapor formed in the tube is an alkaline substance. Cotton, rayon, and linen when treated in this manner give off vapors of acetic acid, which turns blue litmus paper red.

To distinguish between cotton and linen, wet the finger and hold a square cotton over it, noting how long it takes the water to show through. Do the same for linen. The much greater absorptive power of linen is a characteristic quality.

(Source: ANG BANSA, October, 1962)

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